Old and New Views in the Short Story

photo by Zsuzsanna Kilian

By Mike Smith

A short story takes us from the protagonist’s, or perhaps the reader’s, old view of the world to a new one.

That, fundamentally, is why the short story is ‘all about its ending’. The problem for the short story writer is that both the ‘old’ view and the new view to which the story takes us, are both new to the reader. The writer’s main task then, is to present the protagonist’s existing or opening perception as if it were one we were already familiar with. He must make the reader think of it as the ‘norm’. In fact, almost the whole of the story will be devoted to exploring this old view, and the story’s success or failure will be bound up with the success or failure of how this ‘norm’ is presented. Whether we are to be shocked, charmed, amused, surprised, or whatever emotion or reaction the writer wishes to jerk or finesse out of us at the end of the story, it will largely have been the success of the presentation of the ‘old’ view that makes this possible. However, even if the writer succeeds in this task, there remains the risk that the story may still fail. Much depends upon the presentation of the ‘new’ view the protagonist discovers at the end.

When we finally see this new view of the world, and it is probably only a glimpse that we will be given, it is the comparison of it and the old view that carries the weight of the story. The contrast may be shockingly obvious, or subtly disguised. There may be an unexpected similarity, a tenuous yet vital connection, but it is the comparison that provides the story’s real meaning. Once we have recognised the nature of the junction, the juxtaposition between old and new, we have taken in the story.

This is why the protagonist’s new perception of the world is rarely explored, but is instead presented as quickly and as efficiently as possible, usually right at the end of the story. Once we have seen the new view, to offer us anything more would be to distract us from the true purpose or meaning of the story. The two most obvious examples of this, that I know of, are the stories The Attack on the Mill by Zola, and The Coup de Grace by Bierce.  In both of these stories, the last two words (and arguably, the very last word) present the ‘new’ perception, the significance of which hits us as if we have stepped off a cliff edge. Hemingway’s A Canary for One, where the ‘new’ view is a whole sentence, seems leisurely by comparison, although there too the key word that gives meaning to the sentence comes late in it!

Though the obvious lesson from this is that we must get the endings of our stories right, we must not forget that our creation of the ‘old’ view must be utterly convincing too. In the Hemingway story, everything but that last line is to do with the protagonist’s rail journey, save for a few lines about the arrival at Paris. We see details inside and outside the train: sharp little images about the characters, about the countryside through which they are passing, the heartbreaking though as yet as unexplained ‘There’s been a wreck’. By the end of it, you may feel quite frustrated at why you are being given such a quantity of specific detail without any obvious or coherent reason. It is a very convincing description of a journey, but the point of telling us about it certainly eluded me; and then with all the power of a train crash, I hit the buffers of that last sentence, and everything was shaken into its true perspective. The reason for the journey, revealed in those last ten words, collapses every one of those images into perspective, revealing why they have been noticed and reported the way they have been by the narrator. I would go further, and say that suddenly it is the narrator who is revealed, by our equally sudden understanding of his frame of mind as he has been speaking to us.

The ‘old view’ part of a story, even if it is a very short story, perhaps even if it is a flash fiction, will create a world that seems rounded, full, complex and rich. The ‘new’ view, by comparison, will tend to be one-dimensional, a snapshot against the movie footage of the ‘old’ view. In the Hemingway story, the final revelation is in the nature of a mirror held up to what has gone before. In the Bierce story, the ‘new view’ is more like a hoop that we, the readers, are projected through into an imagined future. (I discuss these and other types of short story endings more fully in ‘Reading for Writers’ – on my blog at Bhdandme@wordpress.com.)

And now a change of metaphor: the effectiveness of the hammer’s blow is dependant not only upon the accuracy of the strike, but upon the solidity of the anvil. The short story writer is not only making that strike, but also making the anvil.

About the author

Mike Smith has written 35 articles for THRESHOLDS

Mike Smith writes across a range of genres, including poetry, drama, and literary criticism. Under the name Brindley Hallam Dennis he has published That’s What Ya Get! Kowalski’s Assertions (Unbound Press, 2010), the novella, A Penny Spitfire (Pewter Rose 2011) and in 2012, Talking To Owls (Pewter Rose), a collection of short stories, monologues and flash fictions . In 2009 he received the degree of M Litt from Glasgow University. He currently teaches Creative Writing at Cumbria University. His writing has been published, broadcast and performed, and has won prizes and awards in Scotland and England. He is particularly interested in the structure of short stories, and in the relationship between the story and the narrator. He is keen on the 'told' story, and some of his tellings can be found at BHDandMe on Vimeo. He has a collection of essays on short story form due out from Pewter Rose Press, and a collection of short stories from Sentinel Publications. He is a founder/presenter of LitCaff, a monthly evening of fiction (with added poetry) in Carlisle, England. His most recent collection of short stories, The Man Who Found A Barrel Full of Beer, written as Brindley Hallam Dennis, can be found here: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Man-Found-Barrel-Full-Beer/dp/1517324629 His collection of essays on A.E.Coppard, English of the English, responses to the tales of A.E.Coppard, can be found here: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00UEONRV6

4 Responses to "Old and New Views in the Short Story"

  • dora 12:07 AM 20/11/2011

    Thanks Mike! This post as well as your generous download of ‘Reading for Writers’, is exactly what the doctor ordered. For someone like me who’s still struggling with mastering the short story, this discussion of the various endings and what an author must do to engage the reader in their ‘literary dream’, is invaluable. Being away from Academia, I am truly receiving a much needed education on the form. I am still in the misguided notion that a short story writes itself. I know now this isn’t the case. You’ve given me hope that one day I’ll be able to unite these multiple elements and have more control over my creative visions.

    • Loree Westron 12:30 PM 20/11/2011

      Hi Dora,
      You might be interested in following Charles E. May’s blog ‘Reading the Short Story‘. He contributed a post to the Forum a few months ago, and always provides fresh insight into the stories he discusses. In his latest post, he announced that he’s just begun writing a book on reading short stories – reading for depth of meaning – and he’s also provided a list of books about reading novels, which might be worth a look. I’ve read a couple of books which have been particular helpful to me as a writer – Francine Prose’s Reading Like a Writer and John Mullan’s How Novels Work.

  • dora 11:49 PM 03/12/2011

    Thanks Loree. Yes I am following Charles May’s blog which I’m finding so helpful and insightful. At work I sneak some time to read his blogs and the other wonderful author links you post. Like I mentioned to Alison, I think I know what I’m doing wrong and I’m rereading some of the books on the subject to refresh my memory. If that doesn’t help, perhaps a course will have to do or concentrate on my novels until something jogs my brain – LOL.

    Best,
    Dora

  • January 2014 :: JULIA ROBINSON 10:12 AM 29/1/2015

    […] Smith, M. (2011) ‘Thresholds’ Old and New Views in the Short Story.[Online]. Put in place, eg. London: Available at: http://thresholds.chi.ac.uk/old-and-new-views-in-the-short-story/ […]

Leave a Reply

Archive Posts